What is Achilles Tendinitis & Ruptures?
- Achilles tendinitis is a common condition that causes pain along the back of the leg near the heel.
- The Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body. It connects your calf muscles to your heel bone and is used when you walk, run, and jump.
Achilles tendinitis causes pain along the back of the leg near the heel and is a common condition.
The Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body connecting your calf muscles to your heel bone and is used when you walk, run, and jump.
The Achilles tendon can withstand great stresses from running and jumping, it is also prone to tendinitis.
Tendinitis is inflammation of a tendon. Inflammation is the body’s natural response to injury or disease, can cause swelling, pain, or irritation. There are two types of Achilles tendinitis, based upon which part of the tendon is inflamed.
Noninsertional Achilles Tendinitis
In noninsertional Achilles tendinitis, fibers in the middle portion of the tendon have begun to break down with tiny tears (degenerate), swell, and thicken. This tendinitis commonly affects younger, active people.
Insertional Achilles Tendinitis
Insertional Achilles tendinitis involves the lower portion of the heel, where the tendon attaches (inserts) to the heel bone.
In both types of Achilles tendinitis the damaged tendon fibers may calcify (harden). Bone spurs (extra bone growth) often form with insertional Achilles tendinitis.
Tendinitis can occur at any time, even in patients who are not active.
Our Treatment Approach
In most cases, nonsurgical treatment options will provide pain relief, although it may take a several months for symptoms to completely subside.
- Rest. The first step in reducing pain is to decrease or even stop the activities that make the pain worse. Cross-training activities such as biking, elliptical exercise, and swimming are low-impact options to help you stay active.
- Ice. Placing ice on the most painful area of the Achilles tendon is helpful and can be done as needed throughout the day. This can be done for up to 20 minutes and should be stopped earlier if the skin becomes numb
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication. Drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen reduce pain and swelling.
- Physical Therapy. Physical therapy is very helpful in treating Achilles tendinitis.
- Supportive shoes and orthotics. Pain from insertional Achilles tendinitis is often helped by certain shoes, as well as orthotic devices.
- If your pain is severe, your doctor may recommend a walking boot for a short time. This gives the tendon a chance to rest before any therapy is begun.
Surgery should be considered to relieve Achilles tendinitis only if the pain does not improve after 6 months of nonsurgical treatment. The specific type of surgery depends on the location of the tendinitis and the amount of damage to the tendon.
Gastrocnemius recession. This is a surgical lengthening of the calf (gastrocnemius) muscles. Because tight calf muscles place increased stress on the Achilles tendon, this procedure is useful for patients who still have difficulty flexing their feet, despite consistent stretching.
Débridement and repair (tendon has less than 50% damage). The goal of this operation is to remove the damaged part of the Achilles tendon. Once the unhealthy portion of the tendon has been removed, the remaining tendon is repaired with sutures, or stitches to complete the repair.
Débridement with tendon transfer (tendon has greater than 50% damage). In cases where more than 50% of the Achilles tendon is not healthy and requires removal, the remaining portion of the tendon is not strong enough to function alone. To prevent the remaining tendon from rupturing with activity, an Achilles tendon transfer is performed. The tendon that helps the big toe point down is moved to the heel bone to add strength to the damaged tendon. Although this sounds severe, the big toe will still be able to move, and most patients will not notice a change in the way they walk or run.
Achilles tendinitis is typically not related to a specific injury. The problem results from repetitive stress to the tendon. This often happens when we push our bodies to do too much, too soon, but other factors can make it more likely to develop tendinitis, including:
A bone spur that has developed where the tendon attaches to the heel bone.
- Sudden increase in the amount or intensity of exercise activity—for example, increasing the distance you run every day by a few miles without giving your body a chance to adjust to the new distance
- Tight calf muscles—Having tight calf muscles and suddenly starting an aggressive exercise program can put extra stress on the Achilles tendon
- Bone spur—Extra bone growth where the Achilles tendon attaches to the heel bone can rub against the tendon and cause pain
Common symptoms of Achilles tendinitis include:
- Pain and stiffness along the Achilles tendon in the morning
- Pain along the tendon or back of the heel that worsens with activity
- Severe pain the day after exercising
- Thickening of the tendon
- Bone spur (insertional tendinitis)
- Swelling that is present all the time and gets worse throughout the day with activity
If you have experienced a sudden “pop” in the back of your calf or heel, you may have ruptured (torn) your Achilles tendon. See your doctor immediately if you think you may have torn your tendon.